The savage competition from over-the-top (OTT) messaging applications, which offered free peer-to-peer (P2P) messaging to consumers with enhanced multimedia features (such as emojis, picture and video sharing, and group chats), has decimated the SMS P2P revenue of most mobile network operators (MNOs) worldwide. However, despite the growth of WhatsApp, WeChat, Snapchat, and Facebook Messenger, among others, application-to-person (A2P) SMS traffic has continued to increase over the last few years.