Glossary (Terms)

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C-RAN = Centralized Radio Access Network

What is C-RAN?  The acronym C-RAN, for “Centralized RAN” is sometimes mistakenly defined as “Cloud RAN,” but it actually refers to a centralized, cloud-computing-based architecture for radio access networks that supports 2G, 3G, 4G and future telecommunication standards. It is an architecture which enables radios and antennas to be deployed close to the end user without the expense of a base station onsite. The Base station equipment can be located in a less expensive location and connected to the radios with fiber, allowing network capacity to be allocated dynamically.

CA = Carrier Aggregation technology

What is CA? Carrier Aggregation is a technology to combine two or more carriers into one data channel to enhance the data capacity. It is possible to combine carriers in the same or different frequency bands. The easiest way to aggregate carriers is to take two or more contiguous channels within the same frequency band (intra-band, contiguous). It is also possible to combine two or more non-contiguous channels within the same band (intra-band, non-contiguous). The most challenging form is to aggregate two or more carriers from different frequency bands (intra-band; non-contiguous). Carrier aggregation technology is implemented in most modern mobile communication systems, like LTE and WiMax.

capex = the Capital Expenditure

What is capex? The money a company spends to buy, maintain or improve its fixed assets, such as buildings and equipment. This word is commonly capitalized like an acronym, but it is now a word in its own right. Capital expenditures contrast with operating expenses (opex), which are ongoing expenses that are inherent to the operation of the asset. Opex includes items like electricity or cleaning. The difference between opex and capex may not be immediately obvious for some expenses; for instance, repaving the parking lot may be thought of inherent to the operation of a shopping mall. The dividing line for items like these is that the expense is considered capex if the financial benefit of the expenditure extends beyond the current fiscal year. Download our White Paper on how with a Virtualized RAN Deployment, Mobile Operators Can See 49% Savings in capex and 31% Annual Savings in opex.

Chatbot = Artificial Conversational Entity

What is a Chatbot?  A chatbot (also known as a talkbot, chatterbot, Bot, IM bot, interactive agent, or Artificial Conversational Entity) is a computer program or an artificial intelligence which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods. Such programs are often designed to convincingly simulate how a human would behave as a conversational partner, thereby passing the Turing test. The design of Mavenir RCS opens up possibilities to provide advanced communication between third party businesses and messaging users for a wide range of services such as Chatbots, Plugins, Artificial Intelligence and other third-party industrial applications. For more information see our Messaging as a Platform services.

Cloud Network Function = VNF + VNF Manager + MANO

What is Cloud Network Function?  Cloud Network Function is defined as a virtual network function (VNF), but with the added functionality of a VNF Manager and/or orchestration (MANO) that enable automated, elastic demand and service chaining functionality. Network functions virtualization (NFV) sometimes goes by VNF in the industry. Often used interchangeably, both focus primarily on optimization of the network services, contrary to software-defined networking (SDN), which separates the control and forwarding plane for a centralized view of the network. Virtual network function is designed to consolidate and deliver the networking components necessary to support a fully virtualized environment.

Cloud RAN = Cloud Radio Access Network

What is Cloud RAN? Cloud RAN is sometimes referred to Virtualized RAN (vRAN). It is a broader understanding of the C-RAN, which does not limit the RAN to having a centralized architecture. The Cloud RAN in this usage can also imply a MEC architecture, which pushes processing power out to the Access portion of the network, and even further out to the devices themselves.

COTS = Commercial Off The Shelf

What is COTS? Refers to low-cost servers that are commonly available, plug-and-play appliances for running any virtualized software. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software and services are built and delivered usually from a third party vendor. COTS can be purchased, leased or even licensed to the general public. COTS can be obtained and operated at a lower cost over in-house development, and provide increased reliability and quality over custom-built software. Commonly used in Mavenir's 4G and 5G Solutions.

CUPS = Control and User Plane Separation

What is CUPS? Essential to 5G networks, CUPS reduces latency on application service, e.g. by selecting User plane nodes which are closer to the RAN or more appropriate for the intended UE usage type without increasing the number of control plane nodes. Also, CUPS supports an increase of data traffic, by enabling to add user plane nodes without changing the number of SGW-C, PGW-C, and TDF-C in the network. This is independent evolution of the CP and UP functions enabling Software Defined Networking to deliver user plane data more efficiently while maintaining full EPC media service set at the edge.