Glossary - The Latest Industry Terms and Acronyms

5 A B C D E I M N P R S U V Z All

5G (NR) = The 5th Generation New Radio

What is 5G (NR)? Exponential growth in network traffic, new use cases and shared spectrum resources have placed a tremendous pressure on MNOs to find the most efficient use of their allocated radio spectrum. There is a need for a New Radio evolution to improve spectral efficiency and superior network capacity. This evolution starts with 5G NR (New Radio) which is the new standard for 5G wireless technology capable of a much faster, efficient and scalable network. Associated with the new standards being developed for 5G RAN by the 3GPP.  5G (NR) delivers high levels of capabilities to the network by increasing the spectrum efficiency, traffic capacity, throughput, reliability, number of connected devices and reducing end-to-end latency.

5G = The 5th Generation

What is 5G? The next telecom standards operating in the millimeter wave bands (28, 38, and 60 GHz); 5G planning aims at a higher capacity than current 4G, allowing a higher density of mobile broadband users, and supporting device-to-device, more reliable, and massive machine communications. The fundamental appeal of 5G lies in the fact that the entire infrastructure acts as a cohesive platform for innovative applications and is tuned to flex with demand - providing services tailored to their unique characteristics. While the infrastructure may encompass discrete components from multiple vendors and heterogeneous wireless networks, it is designed to be a fully programmable and an interoperable framework both in the core and radio resource management. = 5G = The 5th Generation

The next telecom standards operating in the millimeter wave bands; 5G planning aims at a higher capacity than current 4G and supporting device-to-device

A2P = Application to Person

What is A2P? Featured in our MaaP solution, A2P generally refers to functionality that allows an application (e.g., a web app) to send a message to one, or many simultaneous, mobile phones. Common use cases of A2P are alerts, notification, and branded marketing messages, such as flight alerts. In all the cases, communication is initiated from a business application, and not an individual’s mobile phone, as is the case with P2P SMS. = A2P = Application to Person

BBU = A Baseband Unit

What is BBU? A baseband unit (BBU) is a unit that processes baseband in telecom systems. A typical wireless telecom station consists of the baseband processing unit and the RF processing unit (remote radio unit - RRU). The baseband unit is placed in the equipment room and connected with RRU via optical fiber. The BBU is responsible for communication through the physical interface. A BBU has the following characteristics: modular design, small size, low power consumption and can be easily deployed. Virtualized RAN offers a strategic differentiation by enabling the RRUs to interwork with the virtualized Cloud BBU over a non-ideal fronthaul (i.e. ethernet), overcoming the traditional constraints of CPRI over fiber. = BBU = A Baseband Unit

C-RAN = Centralized Radio Access Network

What is C-RAN?  The acronym C-RAN, for “Centralized RAN” is sometimes mistakenly defined as Cloud RAN, but it actually refers to a centralized, cloud-computing-based architecture for radio access networks that supports 2G, 3G, 4G, and future telecommunication standards. It is an architecture which enables radios and antennas to be deployed close to the end user without the expense of a base station onsite. The Base station equipment can be located in a less expensive location and connected to the radios with fiber, allowing network capacity to be allocated dynamically.

CA = Carrier Aggregation technology

What is CA? Carrier Aggregation is a technology to combine two or more carriers into one data channel to enhance the data capacity. It is possible to combine carriers in the same or different frequency bands. The easiest way to aggregate carriers is to take two or more contiguous channels within the same frequency band (intra-band, contiguous). It is also possible to combine two or more non-contiguous channels within the same band (intra-band, non-contiguous). The most challenging form is to aggregate two or more carriers from different frequency bands (intra-band; non-contiguous). Carrier aggregation technology is implemented in most modern mobile communication systems, like LTE and WiMax.

capex = the Capital Expenditure

What is capex? The money a company spends to buy, maintain or improve its fixed assets, such as buildings and equipment. This word is commonly capitalized like an acronym, but it is now a word in its own right. Capital expenditures contrast with operating expenses (opex), which are ongoing expenses that are inherent to the operation of the asset. Opex includes items like electricity or cleaning. The difference between opex and capex may not be immediately obvious for some expenses; for instance, repaving the parking lot may be thought of inherent to the operation of a shopping mall. The dividing line for items like these is that the expense is considered capex if the financial benefit of the expenditure extends beyond the current fiscal year. Download our White Paper on how with a Virtualized RAN Deployment, Mobile Operators Can See 49% Savings in capex and 31% Annual Savings in opex.

Chatbot = Artificial Conversational Entity

What is a Chatbot?  A chatbot (also known as a talkbot, chatterbot, Bot, IM bot, interactive agent, or Artificial Conversational Entity) is a computer program or an artificial intelligence which conducts a conversation via auditory or textual methods. Such programs are often designed to convincingly simulate how a human would behave as a conversational partner, thereby passing the Turing test. The design of Mavenir RCS opens up possibilities to provide advanced communication between third party businesses and messaging users for a wide range of services such as Chatbots, Plugins, Artificial Intelligence and other third-party industrial applications. For more information see our Messaging as a Platform services.

Cloud Network Function = VNF + VNF Manager + MANO

What is Cloud Network Function?  Cloud Network Function is defined as a virtual network function (VNF), but with the added functionality of a VNF Manager and/or orchestration (MANO) that enable automated, elastic demand and service chaining functionality. Network functions virtualization (NFV) sometimes goes by VNF in the industry. Often used interchangeably, both focus primarily on optimization of the network services, contrary to software-defined networking (SDN), which separates the control and forwarding plane for a centralized view of the network. Virtual network function is designed to consolidate and deliver the networking components necessary to support a fully virtualized environment.

Cloud RAN = Cloud Radio Access Network

What is Cloud RAN? Cloud RAN is sometimes referred to as Virtualized RAN (vRAN). It is a broader understanding of the C-RAN, which does not limit the RAN to having a centralized architecture. The Cloud RAN in this usage can also imply a MEC architecture, which pushes processing power out to the Access portion of the network, and even further out to the devices themselves.

COTS = Commercial Off The Shelf

What is COTS? Refers to low-cost servers that are commonly available, plug-and-play appliances for running any virtualized software. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software and services are built and delivered usually from a third party vendor. COTS can be purchased, leased or even licensed to the general public. COTS can be obtained and operated at a lower cost over in-house development, and provide increased reliability and quality over custom-built software. Commonly used in Mavenir's 4G and 5G Solutions.

CUPS = Control and User Plane Separation

What is CUPS? Essential to 5G networks, CUPS reduces latency on application service, e.g. by selecting User plane nodes which are closer to the RAN or more appropriate for the intended UE usage type without increasing the number of control plane nodes. Also, CUPS supports an increase of data traffic, by enabling to add user plane nodes without changing the number of SGW-C, PGW-C, and TDF-C in the network. This is independent evolution of the CP and UP functions enabling Software Defined Networking to deliver user plane data more efficiently while maintaining full EPC media service set at the edge.

DRA = A Diameter Routing Agent

What is DRA?  A Diameter Routing Agent (DRA) is a functional element in a 3G or 4G (such as LTE) network that provides real-time routing capabilities to ensure that messages are routed among the correct elements in a network. The DRA was introduced by the 3GPP to address the increased Diameter signaling traffic and growing complexity of 4G LTE networks. = DRA = A Diameter Routing Agent

E2E = End-to-End (complete solution)

What is E2E? Mavenir’s fully virtualized vRAN (Virtualized RAN), small footprint EPC coupled with End to End (E2E) dynamic network slicing capabilities enable the deployment of tailored service-centric architectures at the network edge, transforming local context, agility, rapid response time and speed into value.

EPC = the Evolved Packet Core

What is EPC? The core network of the LTE System, EPC was introduced by 3GPP in release 8 as a “flat architecture” with the goal of handling data traffic more efficiently from a performance and cost perspective. EPC is offered by Mavenir as a virtualized solution (vEPC). The Mavenir vEPC cloud-based core network architecture is targeted to transform mobile networks through a highly scalable and nimble virtualized Evolved Packet Core (EPC) that can adapt to a range of emerging 4G LTE deployment use cases.

IMS Core = IP Multimedia Subsystem

What is IMS Core? Standards-based architecture for enabling the delivery of multimedia services such as voice calls, messaging, and file-sharing; consists of Human Subscriber Server (HSS) and Call Session Control Function (CSCF). Mavenir expertise has been instrumental in creating and implementing highly scalable and resilient IMS solutions in technologies commonly used in large scale Telco data centers. Our virtualized IMS solutions offer deployment flexibility to help meet a range of business needs, including multi-tenancy, and capacity elasticity. = IMS Core = IP Multimedia Subsystem

IoT = the Internet Of Things

What is IoT? The Internet of Things refers to the billions of devices worldwide that are now connected to the internet, sharing and collecting data. This is driving mobile transformation and new economics models due to increased subscriber demand and growing capacity needs. Mavenir’s 4G and 5G network core and radio access solutions support the architectures needed for successful IoT future.

MANO = Definition of Management and Orchestration

What is MANO? NFV MANO (Management and Orchestration) is the framework for the management and orchestration of all network resources in the cloud. This includes computing, networking, storage, and virtual machine (VM) resources. NFV MANO enables flexible on-boarding, design, deployment, operation, and maintenance of NFV services. Mavenir's CloudRange™approach includes architecting VNFs as Microservices, deconstructed into independently scalable components, as well as an NFV MANO suite. = MANO = Definition of Management and Orchestration

Massive MIMO = Massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output

What is Massive MIMO? Massive MIMO uses simultaneous transmit and receive streams controlled by software to create higher network capacity while minimizing errors and optimizing speed. With extended coverage offered by Massive MIMO, Mavenir helps operators avoid site densification that entails costly new base station sites.

MEC = Multi-access Edge Computing

What is MEC? The acronym used to be referred to as “Mobile Edge Computing,”. Mavenir leverages MEC usage as it describes the condition of the network’s machine intelligence and processing power being distributed out to the very devices accessing the network at the literal “edge,” i.e., Virtualized RAN or vMBC. MEC creates a new ecosystem and value chain, enabling CSPs to securely open their Radio Access Network (RAN) edge to authorized third-parties while allowing them the flexibility to deploy innovative applications and services. This widens the addressable market for CSPs beyond the traditional consumer-centric business model to varied vertical markets such as automotive, health, energy, education, manufacturing, and many others.

mUCC = Mobile-native Unified Communications and Collaboration

What is mUCC? This is a product designation meaning a UCC system that is “mobile-native" to the operator core network. This would include voice and video, a full set of cloud PBX features, personal web conferencing service, on-line audio and video conferencing for collaborative meetings, document sharing, screen sharing, white-boarding and converged business messaging.

NFV = Network Functions Virtualization

What is NFV? An initiative to virtualize the network services that are now being carried out by proprietary, dedicated hardware, thus decreasing the amount of proprietary hardware that is needed to launch and operate network services. Components of NFV framework include NFV infrastructure (NFVI), management and organization (MANO), software-defined networking (SDN) controllers and related services. CloudRange™ is Mavenir's network functions virtualization (NFV) and container management and orchestration platform. = NFV = Network Functions Virtualization

PNF = Physical Network Function

What is PNF? Physical Network Function (PNF) is defined as where the network function is a combination of hardware and software. Hardware routers, switches, firewalls, load balancers, Session Border Controllers are examples of PNF. PNFs have been deployed in Data Centers for decades. The hardware may be either a purpose-built hardware product, ATCA chassis or appliance. = PNF = Physical Network Function

RAN = the Radio Access Network

What is RAN? The part of a telecommunications system that implements a radio technology (e.g. UTRAEvolved UTRACDMA2000DECTGERAN) to access the Core Network. The radio access network conceptually resides between user equipment (i.e. mobile phones and other devices) and the Core Network. Mavenir's cloud-based version is Virtualized RAN.

RRH = the actual Remote Radio Head

What is RRH? Radios placed on top of roof tops or towers. These are the core parts of the macroCell and Small cell transmission technology. As an MEC application, Private LTE is considered a small cell. In wireless system technologies such as GSM, CDMA, UMTS, LTE the radio equipment is remote to the BTS/NodeB/eNodeB. The equipment is used to extend the coverage of a BTS/NodeB/eNodeB in challenging environments such as rural areas or tunnels. They are generally connected to the BTS/NodeB/eNodeB via a fiber optic cable using Common Public Radio Interface protocols.

RRU = the actual Remote Radio Unit

What is RRU? A remote radio transceiver that connects to an operator radio control panel. Is used interchangeably with RRH (remote radio head), with RRH being the more common of the two. RRHs have become one of the most important subsystems of today's new distributed base stations. The RRH contains the base station's RF circuitry plus analog-to-digital/digital-to-analog converters and up/down converters.

Small Cell = low-powered cellular radio access nodes

What is Small Cell (or Femto Cell)? Small cells are low-powered cellular radio access nodes that operate in a licensed and unlicensed spectrum that have a range of 10 meters to a few kilometers. They are "small" compared to a mobile macrocell, partly because they have a shorter range and partly because they typically handle fewer concurrent calls or sessions. They make the best use of available spectrum by re-using the same frequencies many times within a geographical area. Fewer new macrocell sites are being built, with larger numbers of small cells recognized as an important method of increasing cellular network capacity, quality and resilience. As an MEC application, Private LTE is considered a small cell. = Small Cell = low-powered cellular radio access nodes

Small cells = low-powered cellular radio access nodes that operate in licensed and unlicensed spectrums that have a range of 10 meters to a few kilometers

UCaaS = Unified Communications as a Service

What is UCaaS? Unified Communications as a Service (UCaaS) is a cloud delivery model that offers a variety of communication and collaboration applications and services. From an MNO point of view, deploying a UCaaS solution means letting a third party, such as Mavenir, deliver a white-labeled service from a managed cloud environment. The third party takes care of all the network elements, keeps the software running and updated to the latest features and provides a white-label solution with a wholesale recurring price that the MNO can bring to market with their own brand, marketing, pricing, and value proposition and is transparent to the end user.

UCC = Unified Communications and Collaboration

What is UCC? Unified communications and collaboration (UCC) describes the combination of communications and collaboration technologies. Until recently, enterprise collaboration vendors were fairly distinct from those for enterprise communications, with software companies like Microsoft and IBM dominating the former and telephony and networking vendors comprising the latter. However, this distinction has become blurred because Microsoft and IBM offer voice and telephony features and vendors like Cisco have moved into the collaboration market. Mavenir offers a virtualized version that is “mobile-native" to the operator core network.

Universal Profile = a GSMA spec for advanced communications

What is Universal Profile? The GSMA published the Universal Profile in November 2016. The Universal Profile is a globally agreed, single GSMA specification for advanced communications. Carriers that deploy the Universal Profile guarantee interconnection with other carriers. RCS takes full advantage of the universal profile to provide a consistent and interoperable messaging experience between all supported devices across all operators worldwide. The Universal Profile is also used to support Messaging-as-a-Platform.

v-SAE-GW = Virtual System Architecture Evolution-Gateway

What is v-SAE-GW? This a virtualized gateway function of the vEPC. It is the main component of the Evolved Packet Core (EPC), also known as the SAE Core. Mavenir's innovative cloud core architecture allows for the vEPC platform to be deployed flexibly as a collapsed all-in-one vEPC, or as a vEPC with a separately instantiated Mavenir vHSS, or as a standalone Mavenir vPGW, Mavenir vSAE-GW, or Mavenir vC-SGN.

vBBU = Virtualized Baseband Unit

What is vBBU? Mavenir Virtualized RAN extends functional element virtualization to the edge of the network, and provides strategic differentiation by enabling remote radio units (RRUs) to interwork with the virtualized base band unit (vBBU) over ethernet fronthaul at a tenth of the bandwidth proprietary solutions require. The vBBU is designed to support multiple fronthaul architectures simultaneously and opens the door to previously excluded fronthaul transmission solutions.

vC-SGN = Virtualized Cellular IoT Serving Gateway Node

What is vC-SGN? This is a collapsed packet core designed for virtualized environments to support Cellular IoT (CIoT) traffic. Mavenir vCSGN features simple deployment and optimization with reduced backhaul costs, enabling operators to quickly react to market changes, thus ensuring a high return on investment and a lower total cost of ownership.

vEPC = a Virtualized Evolved Packet Core

What is vEPC? A virtualized evolved packet core (vEPC) moves the core network's individual components that traditionally run on dedicated hardware to software that operates on low-cost commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) servers. vEPC is an innovative Evolved Packet Core (EPC) specifically designed from the ground up for virtualized environments.

VNF = Virtualized Network Function

What is VNF? Network able to simulate hardware functionality in software as a virtual instance, which is supported on generic host hardware. Mavenir's approach includes architecting VNFs as Microservices, deconstructed into independently scalable components, as well as, an NFV MANO suite. Mavenir NFV CloudRangeputs CSPs in control of VNF or container lifecycle management.

vPGW = Virtualized Packet Data Network Gateway

What is vPGW? This a virtualized gateway function of the vEPC. It provides connectivity and acts as the interface between the LTE network and other packet data networks; manages quality of service (QoS) and provides deep packet inspection (DPI).

vRAN = Virtualized Radio Access Network

What is vRAN? A virtual RAN consists of a centralized pool of baseband units (BBUs), virtualized RAN control functions and service delivery optimization. With a virtual RAN, baseband modules are shifted away from the base station and to data centers – resulting in functions of the BBUs to be implemented with virtual machines in a centralized data center. This provides intelligent scaling of computing resources while decreasing energy consumption and capital expenditure (capex). Mavenir’s innovative vRAN solution (RRU and vBBU) is designed to address the requirements of pre-5G networks with design and programming capabilities that enable simple and inexpensive upgrades to 5G (NR) – providing investment protection and deployment flexibility.

Zero-Rating = Internet access without financial cost

What is Zero-rating? Zero-rating is the practice of providing Internet access without financial cost under certain conditions, such as by only permitting access to certain websites or by subsidizing the service with advertising. Mavenir’s Mobile Data Sponsorship Platform builds a bridge between Carriers and the advertisement ecosystem, allowing Carriers to offer a Marketing Monetization Service and enabling enterprises/marketers to engage with users by giving them frictionless connectivity. = Zero-Rating = Internet access without financial cost